How to Write an Open Letter

My origin piece was originally an academic research argument that examined racial bias effects the way people differentiate between graffiti and street art. Although the paper briefly touched upon gentrification and it’s impact on the development of street art, it did not dive deeply into the concept of gentrification (that could be a whole separate research paper and I tried to stay on topic and not exceed the 20 page limit). For this experiment cycle I aim to study gentrification, what it means, how it is effecting our cities and different view points on gentrification. Currently I do not have a strong opinion on the topic (because I feel I do not know enough to form one), but hopefully my research will enable me to form an educated opinion. For this cycle I am going to write an open letter from a teen growing up in Harlem.

According to my good friend Merriam-Webster, an open letter is a published letter of protest or appeal usually addressed to an individual but intended for the general public.

How to write an Open Letter: 

Dear People Reading My Blog,

If you are not a member of the Sweetland Writing Program, thanks for checking this out and being interested in what a bunch of college students minoring in writing have to say. If you are a member, Hi! Anyway here’s my letter on how to write an open letter. Here are a few things I learned from “An Open Letter To Anyone Thinking About Writing An Open Letter”. First I’m sorry you’re pissed off, upset, mad, or emotionally charged, but take that energy and turn it into passionate energy – get it all down on the paper because you can. This isn’t addressed to anyone specifically, but oh it is. All though my “Dear _________” is a general population, I know exactly who I am talking to and although I may or may not know you personality I want you to hear what I say loud and clear. My introduction of you may be harsh and objective but I am passionate and I do not mean to beat around the bush and be careful to offend anyone. I am going to say exactly what I want how I want (with all the emotions that come with it). When writing an open letter, be careful because you have just become subject to possible open letters. If you are going to ignite the flame be ready to fight the fire. Here’s some more things I learned from reading open letters. 

Open letters use a lot of “I” and “you” because although I may or may not know you. I am not going to explicitly say your name, or else the letter isn’t very open. Open letters can be numbered to organize thoughts like this or they can be a series of paragraphs, or one long one. Open letters often use bold or underlined words to emphasize their strongest points. Although not all have a valediction at the closing, or are signed by the name of the author, I believe the strongest most powerful open letters have an ambiguous targeted valediction (like the one used to sign this letter). Good luck writing an open letter in the future and I hope this helped.


A girl attempting to write and open letter

How to write a photo essay

My origin piece is something that I wrote in English 125.  It was a deeply personal narrative, but I felt like a lot of the things that I discussed–family history, self-esteem, and lack of confidence–were universal themes.  My plan for my experiment is to change this personal narrative into a photoessay that reflects how these feelings are universal, and shows the extent that we change who we are.  My idea is to create a persuasive photoessay that shows photos on Instagram and the same photos pre-filter.  Ideally this would result in a visual that shows people being more honest about who they are.

So here we go…How to write/create a photoessay


To start, I’ve already learned that the guidelines for the genre photoessay are very vague.  According to WikiHow, photoessays are great if they are centered around a narrative.  I think that my narrative will start off with photos that are very edited and slowly progress to revealing more of who I actually am.

Essentially I want to show how my photos go from this version (which is never seen):



to this version (which was posted on Instagram):


Everything about this process eliminates the flaws, the personality, and the honest truth about who I am.  It makes a gray, cold, and cloudy day seem warm and vibrant.  I’ve been trying to edit my photos less and less, but it’s not something that I am always consciously thinking about.  I don’t know how many of these photos I want to do, but I also want to show how selection is just as important in the process.  I might show all the photos from one night and show how there’s about fifteen that we took but I only posted the one that I look the best in.

I’m fear that people might not understand exactly what it is that I want to do, but this ad from Google is really close to my goal.  I have seen this ad replicated different times and know that I could really make a compelling argument based on replicating the format.  Mine is not an advertisement, but as the Digital Photography School says, placing specific images in a planned order to make a point is a unique quality of the photoessay.  I would have these unedited/edited versions of myself and also include photos that I feel really reflect my personality.  Anyway, if you’re trying to get a sense of what I’m doing, the video below is a good start.



I love how saturated in emotion this ad is, and I feel like it really captures the entire year of 2017.  Like I said, I’m not trying to create an advertisement, but a photoessay will really allow me to create a multimedia project with text and music that ideally will illicit some of the same emotion felt in the ad.

I also plan to copy one of the ads that Apple used for their new iPhone.  Similar to the ad above, it uses music to create a feel and pace the entire ad.  I want to replicate the same kind of beat that the ad created to really get a certain vibe.

I know that I have defined the photoessay as some loose genre, but that’s because it is.  Time Magazine, in a article titled, “How Photographers Are Changing the Definition of the Photoessay,” describes the loosening definition of the genre and emphasizes the importance of a narrative, photos, and possibly text or music.

I fully expect my photoessay to contain photos and videos that aren’t my own, as I want to make this a piece that shows it’s more than just on person.  Hopefully I’ve done a decent job explaining where I want this to go, but feel free to shoot me any questions if there’s still confusion.

How To Write an Investigation Essay

I have decided to take a college essay about what running means to me and turn it into an experiment for stage 2: a test of how running affects me and relates to various realms of my life, from my mood to writing to my outlook and general happiness. I want to reconnect with my body and mind through this experiment by challenging myself to run a little more for seven days straight, probably going from 1 to 7 miles. Through this experiment, I expect to find old feelings reemerge: nostalgia, an ache in the calves, frustration when I don’t feel as strong as I might like to, relief. I will set up a journal format and answer several specific pre-written questions each day along with free writing. I want to investigate what running means to me on a physical, spiritual, historical and deeply personal level, and connect that back to a larger idea of why people run and what the physical act, sport and cultural relevance of running says about us in the world.

How to Write An Investigation Essay

         Last semester in my English 325 class, I was tasked with writing a so-called “Investigation” essay. After reading several experimental essays, like one by Ann Hodgman where she tries eating different types of dog food and reflects on our relationship with our pets, and one by George Plimpton about pressure and talent while briefly playing in the New York Philharmonic, I still could not come up with an experiment of my own that felt profound.

What did I want to test about my world? What questions lay unanswered before me? I couldn’t figure it out.

Long story short, I sort of copped out and wrote about college parties — which wasn’t really an investigation at all. Meanwhile, during our peer review workshops, it occurred to me how to conduct an experiment. I could investigate running. I could test how it places me into a greater family, local and world community. I could question what it does to my body.

Here is how to write an investigation essay, courtesy of my rubric from 325, and the internet:

From my 325 rubric, courtesy of Patricia Khleif:

“Your experiment need not be quite so elaborate as those of the published authors. As long as your experiment is safe, legal, and feasible within the timeframe and constraints of the class, you have a lot of room to explore.”

Keywords: Safe, legal and feasible. Make sure your experiment can occur without major consequences including harm to yourself, harm to others, prison time, a million dollar budget, etc. Sometimes the riskiest experiments seem exciting, but realistically you can make a small change in your life and see big results — minus the risk of jail time or a hospital visit.

“This essay, then, ”integrates the personal with the journalistic:
each writer has a distinctive voice and presence, along with a question that clearly preoccupies him, as he explores a broader social or cultural phenomenon.”

While you investigate this subject on a personal level, in terms of writing, it is important to weave two types of voice together. There is a poet in me, and a journalist in me. The cross product of this is often the personal essay, this time the experiment. I seek to place myself in a greater social picture while also focusing on the nuances of my own actions and thoughts.

From the article “What makes a successful personal experiment” by Matthew Cornell:

“Taking action. Finally, each experiment is a manifestation of personal empowerment, which is a major success factor in life. While health comes to mind (do difficult patients have better results?), I think generally the more we take charge of our lives, the closer we get to happiness”.

Designing for surprise. If the product of your experiment was not very surprising, then maybe you should question your choice of what you tried. Exciting experiments probe the unknown, which ideally means novelty is in store. Fill in the blank: “If you’re not surprised at the end of your experiment, then __.”

In terms of personal experimentation in general, Cornell says it is important to take charge of our lives, literally by taking action. This is required in an experiment. Instead of sitting at our computers and musing, we must do something and then sit at our computers and muse. It is important to generate content by actually setting guidelines for yourself and completing them, even if they must vary a little due to circumstance, which you should include in your explanation of your experiment.

Cornell also says to design for surprise. Like any and all experiments, it is important to write a hypothesis before hand to imagine what might happen. But if you already know what is going to happen, what is the point? Set yourself up to be surprised, try something new, go the extra mile (ha ha get it). If you don’t walk away with a new perspective on anything then the musing will be difficult.

From Wikipedia page on self-experimentation: 

“Examples in classic fiction include the tales of The Invisible Man and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. In each case the scientist’s unorthodox theories lead to permanent change and ultimately to self-destruction.”

Re: safe, legal, and feasible. But even so, testing things out can be scary. I personally hate change. So listen to yourself and take it slow; no need to uproot everything you’ve known in a day and completely alter your life.

From the article “4 Ways to Mix up your running routine” by Jeff Galloway:

“Get off autopilot.”

This applies to running and to life.

Experiment 1, Stage 2: how to write a short story

My origin piece is a paper I wrote about Bruce Springsteen and his role in American culture and politics. For my first experiment, I want to turn the paper into a short story. Obviously, I can’t turn the whole paper into a short story, because there are many different sections and trying to shove them all into one short story would be way too chaotic.

For my research about how to write a short story, I came across a lot of similar advice. From a website called
“The Write Practice”, I found this infographic (



So, there’s that. I don’t know, that timeline ( and basically all of the stuff I found) seemed super unhelpful. I think part of this is because I’m in two classes where we’re reading metafiction, and so regular short stories just seem boring to me right now. Like, where is the self-consciousness about the construction of a narrator?? Anyway, there are still some aspects of the short story genre that I think I need to take into consideration, even if I do attempt to make some sort of metafiction-y and unconventional short story inspired by what I’ve been reading in my other classes.

So, how do you write a short story?

  1. character: most short stories have characters, and Springsteen’s songs, while they are about places, are also really about the people to whom certain places have value. Creating fictional characters is an important aspect of the writing process, and one that might happen before a writer begins or emerge organically as the story unfolds.
  2. create a mood: a good short story will use characters and setting to create a world that has a particular emotional landscape. This is particularly important in short stories, because there is limited space (compared to a novel) to develop themes.
  3. story arc: generally, a short story will have a beginning, a period of rising action, a climax, and period of falling action, and a conclusion. However, authors often play with this basic setup in order to emphasize narrative tension.
  4. simplicity: short stories are usually pretty simple in terms of number of characters, plot, and themes. This is mostly because of the limited length of a short story (although there is not set length). Obviously, simple doesn’t mean bad or not complex, but the type of multiplicity that you can often see in novels is just not feasible in most short stories.

I read some short stories to see how well these conventions apply to actual examples in the genre. The Gift of the Magi by O. Henry seems to fit pretty well (characters, mood, story arc, simplicity). However, some more recent short stories were less clearly attuned to these conventions. The Yardman by Bonnie Jo Campbell is way less interested in a story arc. Instead, Campbell focuses on language to create a mood and develop characters. Lastly, Cat Person by Kristen Roupenian has all of these conventions. I found that it was not the adherence to or divergence from convention that made a short story appealing, but rather the author’s use of language to create a self-contained and absorbing world in a short space.

This makes me think that the challenge of creating a short story will be to render my created world in a way that resonates with the reader. In another class I’m taking right now (English 317), we are reading a lot of Rust Belt literature, which I think has some similar ideas/themes as Bruce Springsteen’s music (relationship between work and identity, loss of employment, etc). I think that looking deeper into how those writers struggle with these topics will be a major part of my next step (the annotated bibliography).


Stage 1 Cycle 1

For my origin piece, I chose a cultural critique I wrote for my first year writing class (English 125). In this piece, I discussed the lack of respect, in comparison to the rest of the world, that Americans hold for our elderly. More specifically, I delved deeper into the inherent fear we have towards displaying age, commonly seen in several plastic surgeries and procedures meant to mitigate the effects of aging.

My paper focused a lot on a comparison between American sentiment towards the elderly in relation to that of other countries; now I would like to dig deeper into the semi-recent boom in the plastic surgery industry, and the true addiction some people have for these types of procedures. In order to do this, I would like to create a short story from the perspective of a character who is addicted to plastic surgery.

According to the article, “Learn How to Write a Short Story,” writers should focus on using few characters and sticking to one single point of view. The article also points out that by limiting the number of characters, sticking to one perspective becomes increasingly easier. Moreover, the author of the article states that the writer of a short story should strive to limit the time frame of the story, and be selective in the details he or she includes. Because short stories are so short, every word counts and must hold significant meaning.

The article, “How to Write a Short Story From Start to Finish,” tells its readers that the heart of a good short story lies in the first line. According to the article, the first line of a short story should be “Perfect,” and immediately draw the reader in. Some tips they give for having a perfect first line include:

  1. Invite the reader to the scene
  2. Surprise the reader
  3. Establish a voice
  4. Be clear
  5. Tell the entirety of a story in a single sentence writes that a great short story is heavily dependent on having a good plot. IN order to ensure your story has a great plot, this website encourages the use of crises, conflict, and an effective resolution. Additionally, when composing the story’s plot, the writer should have a general message in mind. These messages could resemble those such as: “Honesty is the best policy,” or “The Victory of virtue over vice.” By having meaningful messages in mind, the writer has a sense of guidance as to where the story should go, and can therefore more easily draw up a successful plot line with a lasting effect.


Making a podcast seems kind of scary (revised)

Last weekend, I spent a great deal of time searching through the depths of my Google drive. This led me to rediscover all of my college application essays; I had nearly forgotten about the one I wrote for the Michigan “community” prompt (a fact that would probably torture 17-year-old me, who spent so many hours agonizing over the 250 word blurb). It was about my identity as a member of the “community of oldest children,” and I knew this would fit all the origin piece boxes I had drawn up for myself. As I reread the essay, I decided, somewhat radically, that my first experiment cycle had to be converting this idea into a podcast.

Okay, if I’m being honest here, I didn’t just decide to go with a podcast for this experiment cycle because “it would allow me to bring together the voices of many different people who identify as part of this community” or because I thought “having people actually talk about their lived experiences will add a certain personal aspect to the piece.” Those are real goals that I have for this project, but the primary reason was simply that I have always loved podcasts. My dad got me hooked on This American Life when I was in elementary school, and I’ve been a fan of many others for nearly as long.

And I suppose this is also a personal endeavor in another sense. I recently joined the team that is jumpstarting The Michigan Daily’s news podcast, so I’m eager to figure out what makes a good podcast. Perfect timing!

Before I learned about what makes a good podcast, I wanted to understand what makes me so attracted to the genre. What’s so interesting about them, and why do I instinctively feel like they would be a good mode for this experiment? Well, an article from Vanity Fair describes the rise of podcasts as an “audio renaissance,” and the genre’s rise akin to that of blogs about 10 years ago. They are “a return to the intimacy, wombed shadows, and pregnant implications of words, sounds, and silences in the theater of the mind… Podcasts can induce [an] immersive, time-suspended float.” Right. That’s a beautiful way of saying audio is a unique manner to use to tell someone’s story, and sometimes it feels more personal to hear someone talk about themselves than it does to read words about them on a page.

So what did I find? Well, according to Mashable, the first step is picking a topic you’re passionate about. Easy enough. Next they suggest choosing between a video and audio podcast. According to the Mashable writer, video podcasts are more personal, and make it easier for the audience to connect with the subject. Personal, emotional appeal is definitely something I’m going for here, so that will be something I’ll have to put more thought into. The article also suggests planning content beforehand. This includes breaking the overarching theme up into segments, finding people to interview, and preparing an intro script.

A Forbes article instructs readers to make sure the show is consistent over episodes (which makes me realize that this isn’t just a one time thing— podcasts usually produce new episodes weekly, which is another important thing to consider). The article also talks about getting good equipment to ensure the best possible audio or video quality. I’ll have to look into renting out microphones from ISS or going to the recording studio on North Campus if I actually want to produce this.

Ok, so how am I going to incorporate these tips into my own project? Well, I have some initial ideas.

  1. Sourcing: my ultimate goal for this experience is to show how a wide variety of people have experienced being an oldest child, so I’m going to need to figure out how to reach out to people and convince them it’s a good idea to talk about their experiences on this podcast. I might be able to achieve this through posting on class Facebook pages, or finding friends of friends.
  2. Planning: I think the most effective way to get these stories across will be to let my interviewees drive the narrative. This will likely lead to a minimalist interview format, where I ask a few questions but let the interviewee do most of the talking. I’ll also want to segment the podcast, so the finished project is more like several different vignettes per episode (or one story per episode) than one big conversation.
  3. Recording: We recorded our News podcast at the Duderstadt Center last weekend, and the sound quality was fantastic (but I’ll need to figure out how to work the equipment—  and convince the interviewees to come to North Campus)
  4. Editing: I’ll want this to sound good, so I’ll have to figure out how to edit audio (probably my biggest challenge going into this project). For this, I’ll look to online sources and the audio editor of the Daily’s podcasts.

Excited to look exactly like this dog as I embark on an adventure into the unknown world of podcasting!

How to write a HONY style Human-Interest Story

For my origin piece, I’m using a personal narrative detailing a car accident I was in when I was 18. The story is pretty personal, but something I want to work with and alter to make relatable to a wider audience. I also feel like when I was doing the original writing, I was constrained by my page limit and used over-explanations and superfluous language to meet a certain page number. For these reasons, I originally thought I’d like to convert my piece into a magazine type human interest story, but then I got some feedback on an idea I had to mimic a sub-genre of human interest story modeled after the brief and monologue-like Humans of New York stories, and decided to roll with that.

I love the HONY series because the author does a great job of using an opening statement that draws the reader in, and the stories are able to convey so much about the person in as few words as possible, something I want to mimic to an extent with my own writing.

For this project, I would collect not only my story, rewritten in quotations, but also the stories of other people who have gone through tragic/life changing events. I would try to get approximately 10 different stories from different people, each under 200 words but with enough information to transmit the same effect as a full story, just as the Humans of New York project does.

In order to understand what makes a human interest story itself so interesting, I looked at an article entitled “How to Write a Good Human Interest Story” on According to this, there are 5 main keys to writing a good human interest story:

– pick a topic that you like, something that appeals you

– focus on getting the emotion right- think about what you want the reader to feel

– highlight positivity

-describe people, places, attire, and time so people can picture the story

– end it on a positive note

This same article also states that headline choice is important because you want something that draws the reader in without giving to much away about the center of your story. Additionally, you want to include a conclusion that leaves a “good taste” in the reader’s mind.

In another article entitled “The Power of the Human Interest Story” on, it is stated that a human interest story serves to put “people at the heart of the events,” which is what I’d like to do with my writing. Another part of this article that I find interesting is when it goes on to explain how news stories in the past were usually framed around certain people and events as a way to more effectively explain emotional situations, like war.

I’ve never really had the opportunity to write HONY style human-interest stories. Even in my high school newspaper class I was always a sports and news writer, and since I’ve been in college, all I have done is research papers and limited creative writing. I think this will make this experiment a challenge for me as I find the excessive emphasis of emotional conveyance within this genre very daunting.

Mediating Between What I Think I Want and What Makes My Soul Sing

Capstone has completely and utterly taken over all of my brain space.


The past few weeks I have existed in a constant state of wracking my brain for topics that would maybe quench my brain’s writing needs for an entire semester. Several plausible topics have felt promising at their birth. Some have even been excitedly posed to my mom on our weekly phone call. And yet, none have survived.


“What about the four topics in your Pre-Proposal??” you are probably asking.


The short answer is that none of them feel right – none of them have sparked my writer’s insomnia, stubbornly keeping my eyes open past my 11pm bedtime, directing them towards the possible orderings of chunks of ideas or the streaks of words against the dark nothingness of my bedroom ceiling.


The long answer is that all of my ideas are too safe.


Before delving more thoroughly into my current struggle with veering on the safe side, full disclaimer: this is not a new problem for me. A year ago, I took English325 which, for those who have not had the chance to take it, involves learning the art of writing personal essays. A central theme of the class is using an experience or a central characteristic of yourself to bestow a greater truth upon your readers. Slight tidbit about me: I genuinely love the world that I live in. Walking between classes, I am often gazing up and smiling, responding to an upwelling of appreciation for the delicate and ever changing patches of sky uniquely traced by tree branches. My heart feels overjoyed when condensed water droplets vertically hit my face, or when rays of warm radiation sink deep into my pores. The other day I almost cried because I was so overwhelmed by the beauty of the natural world and of my own journey within it.


Knowing this about myself, I had always assumed and wanted to write about my love for the world. And yet, each time I tried to do so, I found myself enticed by a different topic, one that was darker and more emotionally difficult because it just felt right. Even when I wrote about Love and initially framed it as a surreal and too good to be true experience, I twisted it by focusing on the heartache that accompanied my long distance relationship.


Now, I find myself again at a crossroads. I must decide to go dark and twisty, or be happy with one of my topics from the pre-proposal. While none of the four are easy and bright per say, they do lack the “pulling at my heartstrings, will cause emotional distress while writing about it, but will probably lead to some enlightening moment for me” vibe. In addition, they veer away from focusing on personal reflections and experiences, and are rooted instead in research of the topic. Although I do think that my best writing comes from using personal experiences to portray some greater truth, a large part of me is nervous to make my Capstone so…me-centric.


But perhaps personal stories and reflections of dark experiences is the focus that I need for a writing piece to make my soul sing. Perhaps that is my “creative DNA.”


I do have a very unformed possible topic if I do cave and go along with my maybe creative DNA, but I am wondering, has anyone else felt the same inner conflict between what you think you want and what you know you want? Specifically, has anyone felt nervous about being too personal, or too dark?


Introductions are hard–it’s not the same as introducing yourself, but something more challenging and potentially more meaningful. An introduction is the beginning of something, the promise that after this there will be chapters and chapters to come. If I had to distill myself into a list of ten things about my life right now that are most important (which I guess I do), this would be them:

I am currently floundering (a little): I’ve already switched three of my classes since the beginning of the term because I realized maybe I want to be an English major instead of American Culture. Or both!? I don’t know. We’ll see. It’ll be fine.

I get up early four days a week: This seems trivial, but I’m in four 8:30s and I’m not used to getting up early so my schedule is kind of ruling my life right now.

I’m living in Boston this summer with my best friend: I’m so excited! We just signed a sublease and (kind of coincidentally) I looked at the lineup for Boston Calling (a music festival in May) and my absolute favorite band, Big Thief, is playing. Seems meant to be. I still don’t know exactly what I’m going to be doing in Boston, but I’ve been frantically applying for internships and I’m hoping it’ll all work out.

My birthday is February 4th: …and my mom and my aunt are coming to Ann Arbor to take me to the Folk Festival for my birthday, which I am super psyched about.

I just sent my best friend from high school a birthday card: Why don’t people send more letters? I’m getting very into sending letters. I even bought stamps. I think I’m going to singlehandedly bring back letters.

I always have a cold: I will be the first to go down if Contagion happens.

I like oatmeal: I sometimes have oatmeal for every meal. I’m not proud of it, but I’m not ashamed, either.

I like to read: I really do. I’m obsessed with Jennifer Egan! She seems like she is probably the coolest person and she is also an amazing writer.

I just ate a banana: self explanatory. I love bananas because they come with their own wrapping, and finding a container and lid that match is basically an Olympic sport at my house (my housemates and I have taken to yelling “tupperwhere’s the lid?!” while we are looking).

I want to be a better writer: this seems more like a goal than something that belongs in an introduction, but it’s why I’m taking this class and it’s also something I think about a lot.

Challenge Journal #2: Does this make sense?

Okay, so I have a question for you all: do you ever write a scene from your past, and then wonder if it makes any sense to the reader (i.e. if they get the full picture)? I was running into this problem even as I wrote my project proposals and explained the stories that inspired my potential topics. In terms of my past works, I’m thinking about a portrait I wrote for English 325 last year about a unique town my family visits every summer up in the thumb of Wisconsin, and in particular, an outing where we went on a prayer walk and explored a replica of an ancient Scandinavian church. I wasn’t sure if the action and dialog were making sense, along with the sprinkling of scenery description I wrote in. It was especially difficult for me to describe this place because there was something in the atmosphere that caused one to stop and reflect. In general, it’s amazing how easy it is to assume the reader knows all of the details of the scenario, when actually I need to communicate much more than I originally anticipated.

A plaque placed along the prayer pathway.
The Stavkirke

Another question I dwell on is how do you, my fellow writers, know when you’re over-explaining? I’m currently taking English 425, and the other day we were discussing how sometimes the best writers decide to leave out commentary or explanation and let the reader “fill-in” the blanks. I think it’s absolutely brilliant, but I’m a little stumped on how to implement this in my own writing.


The way I’ve tried to overcome this obstacle has been by writing, and then coming back to the piece several times again day after day and seeing if things still make sense and then tweaking them. However, I’d love to hear from my MiW cohorts about strategies they utilize regarding this writing concern.